My psychiatrist went to a conference at the National Institue for Mental Health where tests had showed that N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine is effective in treating bipolar disroder. I have been on it for 1.5 years and my mood seems pretty stable. In addition I take Lamictal. I had been on lithium for 18 years and my lab tests showed that I had a 50% loss of my kidneys so i needed to discontinue a drug that had worked for me. My kidneys have improved some what and I wonder if N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine had detoxified my kidneys.